Simon Bar Kokhba took the title Nasi Israel and ruled over an entity that was virtually independent for two and a half years. ", Among those findings are the rebel hideout systems in the Galilee, which greatly resemble the Bar Kokhba hideouts in Judea, and though are less numerous, are nevertheless important. The Talmud, for instance, refers to Bar Kokhba as "Ben-Kusiba," a derogatory term used to indicate that he was a false Messiah.  In addition, some historians argue that Legio IX Hispana's disbandment in the mid-2nd century could have been a result of this war.  These coins include references to "Year One of the redemption of Israel", "Year Two of the freedom of Israel", and "For the freedom of Jerusalem". These tensions were related to the establishment of a large Roman military presence in Judea, changes in administrative life and the economy, together with the outbreak and suppression of Jewish revolts from Mesopotamia to Libya and Cyrenaica. Cassius Dio also wrote: "Many Romans, moreover, perished in this war. Despite easing the persecution of Jews following Hadrian's death in 138 CE, the Romans barred Jews from Jerusalem, except for attendance in Tisha B'Av. , In 132, the revolt led by Bar Kokhba quickly spread from central Judea across the country, cutting off the Roman garrison in Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem). Later on it is proposed by some historians that Legio XXII Deiotariana was sent from Arabia Petraea, but was ambushed and massacred on its way to Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem), and possibly disbanded as a result. In addition, it is generally considered that Legio XXII Deiotoriana took part in the campaign, and was annihilated. Under Roman rule, which began in 63 BC, Jews were excessively taxed and their religion persecuted. The fact that Galilee retained its Jewish character after the end of the revolt has been taken as an indication by some that either the revolt was never joined by Galilee or that the rebellion was crushed relatively early there compared to Judea. This raised the hopes of the Jewish people initially. . Aharon Oppenheimer, ‘The Ban on Circumcision as a Cause of the Revolt: A Reconsideration,’ Aharon Oppenheimer, התגלית שהוכיחה: מרד בר כוכבא חל גם בשומרון. , The disastrous end of the revolt also occasioned major changes in Jewish religious thought. Severus arrived in 133. But they killed about 500,000. While some claim further resistance was broken quickly, others argue that pockets of Jewish rebels continued to hide with their families into the winter months of late 135 and possibly even spring 136. But their hope quickly turned to disdain when they discovered he intended to dedicate the new temple to the chief Roman god, Jupiter. The seat of war was transferred to Palestine, whither the Jewish leader Lucwas had fled (Abulfaraj, in Münter, "Der Jüdische Krieg," p. 18, Altona and Leipsic, 1821). He expressed sympathy for the plight of the Jews and made a promise to rebuild their temple. carved on the face of a mountain. hence a double security arises to the rights of the people. This thesis will explore the immediate causes of the Bar Kokhba revolt and compare them to other provincial revolts in the Roman Empire. He was known as a man of tremendous physical strength with the ability to uproot a tree while riding a horse or haul back the stone thrown by a Roman catapult. [a] – per Cassius Dio  The failure to rebuild the Temple has mostly been ascribed to the dramatic Galilee earthquake of 363, and traditionally also to the Jews' ambivalence about the project. The failed Bar Kokhba revolt, which is marked today by Jews around the world with the holiday of Lag Ba’omer, itself celebrated with bonfires, was one of the most traumatic events in the history of the Jewish people, a history with no shortage of traumatic events. According to Lamentations Rabbah, the head of Bar Kokhba was presented to Emperor Hadrian after the Siege of Betar. This view is largely supported by Cassius Dio, who wrote that the revolt began with covert attacks in line with preparation of hideout systems, though after taking over the fortresses Bar Kokhba turned to direct engagement due to his superiority in numbers.  This setback, however, caused Emperor Hadrian to assemble a large-scale Roman force from across the Empire, which invaded Judea in 134 under the command of General Sextus Julius Severus. Rome also took control of the appointment of Jewish High Priests.Previous bloody conflicts between the Romans and the Jews, such as the Great Jewish Revolt of … , After the suppression of the revolt, Hadrian's proclamations sought to root out Jewish nationalism in Judea, which he saw as the cause of the repeated rebellions. The Jews had the first one from which to learn and they were determined to do things differently.  One interpretation involves the visit in 130 CE of Hadrian to the ruins of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. Reverse: COL[ONIA] AEL[IA] CAPIT[OLINA] COND[ITA] ('The founding of Colonia Aelia Capitolina').  Although Rufus was in charge during the early phase of the uprising, he disappears from the record after 132 for unknown reasons. Sabotage is a possibility, as is an accidental fire, though Christian historians of the time ascribed it to divine intervention. Despite the reference to Jerusalem, as of early 2000s, archaeological finds, and the lack of revolt coinage found in Jerusalem, supported the view that the revolt did not capture Jerusalem. Legio III Cyrenaica was the main force to execute this last phase of the campaign. The 2013 discovery of the military camp of Legio VI Ferrata near Tel Megiddo, and ongoing excavations there may shed light to extension of the rebellion to the northern valleys. The complete inscription was translated as follows: The inscription was dedicated by Legio X Fretensis to the emperor Hadrian in the year 129/130 CE. against Rome, and looms large in Jewish history for the way in which it decisively shaped the future of Judaism. , As noted above, XXII Deiotariana was disbanded after serious losses. In 39 AD Emperor Caligula decreed that his statue be placed in every temple of the Empire, including the Holy Temple in Jerusalem, which offended Jewish religious sensibilities. The stage was set for another confrontation. Imagine the incredible excitement of those involved in the discovery of the caves when they learned they had finally uncovered the final resting place of Bar-Kokhba and others who were with him. It was significant in that it took place at the very end of Trajan's reign and gave the future emperor, Hadrian, a taste of what he might have to contend with. It was concluded that the Legion was disbanded between 120 and 197 CE - either as a result of fighting the Bar Kokhba revolt, or in Cappadocia (161), or at the Danube (162). Byzantine control of the region was finally lost to Muslim Arab armies in 637 CE, when Umar ibn al-Khattab completed the conquest of Akko. Dio Cassius also records the events in his Historia Romana. It is plausible that Legio IX Hispana was among the legions Severus brought with him from Europe, and that its demise occurred during Severus' campaign, as its disappearance during the second century is often attributed to this war. ←Humus sapiens←Talk 01:21, 2 Aug 2004 (UTC) Sexuality. But the Great Revolt and the Bar Kokhba revolt were fought wholly within the Jewish homeland. On Lag Ba'Omer, Israeli children celebrate the Jewish rebels' victory over the Romans 2,000 years ago. Shimon Bar-Kokhba was the leader of the Jewish revolt against Rome between 132 and 135 C.E. Historians disagree on the duration of the Roman campaign following the fall of Betar. The Jews who were left tried to return to as normal a life as possible. Jewish messianism was abstracted and spiritualized, and rabbinical political thought became deeply cautious and conservative. Bar Kokhba Revolt (132-135) - The Bar Kokhba revolt was the conclusion of the wars between the Romans and the Jews. The primary non-Jewish sources are an epitome of Cassius Dio’s Roman History and a handful of lines by the ecclesiastical historian Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea. The story of Bar-Kokhba was a legend in Jewish history - some actually believed he wasn't a real person. Hostilities broke out in 132. The Jews then satisfied themselves with preparing secretly in case a rebellion would later become necessary.  Roman casualties were also considered heavy – XXII Deiotariana was disbanded after serious losses. Then he surrounded Jerusalem and forced them out. Shortly after the eruption of the revolt, Bar Kokhba's rebels inflicted heavy casualties to Legio X Fretensis, based in Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem). , Historians have suggested multiple reasons for the sparking of the Bar Kokhba revolt, long-term and proximate. Galilee became an important center of Rabbinic Judaism, where the Jerusalem Talmud was compiled in the 4th-5th centuries CE.  The Jerusalem Talmud relates that the number of dead in Betar was enormous, that the Romans "went on killing until their horses were submerged in blood to their nostrils.". Bourgel, Jonathan, ″The Jewish-Christians in the storm of the Bar Kokhba Revolt″, in: Bernard Lazare and Robert Wistrich, Antisemitism: Its History and Causes, University of Nebraska Press, 1995, I, pp.46-7. The war had no chronicler such as Josephus Flavius, at least none whose work has survived. , According to Cassius Dio, 580,000 Jews were killed in the overall operations, and 50 fortified towns and 985 villages were razed to the ground, with many more Jews dying of famine and disease. Many houses utilized underground hideouts, where Judean rebels hoped to withstand Roman superiority by the narrowness of the passages and even ambushes from underground. Palestine. Published on 18.05.2014. Despite arrival of significant Roman reinforcements from Syria, Egypt, and Arabia, initial rebel victories over the Romans established an independent state over most parts of Judea Province for over two years, as Simon bar Kokhba took the title of Nasi ("prince").  However, the Jewish population remained strong in other parts of Palestine, thriving in Galilee, Golan, Bet Shean Valley, and the eastern, southern, and western edges of Judea. David Ussishkin: "Archaeological Soundings at Betar, Bar-Kochba's Last Stronghold", in: This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 19:37. Similarly, under the argument to ensure the prosperity of the newly founded Roman colonia of Aelia Capitolina, Jews were forbidden to enter, except on the day of Tisha B'Av.. As a result of the revolt the Jewish community in Judea was eliminated, the Roman province of Judea became the province of … , Until 1951, Bar Kokhba Revolt coinage was the sole archaeological evidence for dating the revolt. War of Quietus. The Jews of the Parthian Empire fought side by side with their Persian allies and embarked on a series of behind-the -lines guerrilla actions.  Previously it had generally been accepted that the Ninth disappeared around 108 CE, possibly suffering its demise in Britain, according to Mommsen; but archaeological findings in 2015 from Nijmegen, dated to 121 CE, contained the known inscriptions of two senior officers who were deputy commanders of the Ninth in 120 CE, and lived on for several decades to lead distinguished public careers.  The Gallus revolt came during the rising influence of early Christians in the Eastern Roman Empire, under the Constantinian dynasty. , After the First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), the Roman authorities took measures to suppress the rebellious province of Roman Judea.  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